Mitochondrial Haplogroup L

Mitochondrial haplogroup L


Macro-haplogroup L forms the deepest branches of the human mitochondrial tree – the L lineages represent the most ancient of the human lineages and are most closely linked with our shared common ancestor, often dubbed the “Mitochondrial Eve” who lived in East Africa approximately 150,000-190,000 years ago. Macro-haplogroup L is made up of haplogroups L0, L1, L2, L3, L4, L5 and L6. All of these lineages except L3 are found exclusively in Africa or in African derived populations. All non-African populations can trace their lineage back to the L3 branch which represents those who began the “Out of Africa” migration some 60-65,000 years ago. For further information regarding the distributions of the L lineages within Africa see below, which is from:




Macro-haplogroup L (mtDNA) composition within Africa. Approximate frequencies in: 1. North Africa.[1,2] 2. Sudan.[2] 3. Ethiopia.[2,3] 4. West Africa.[1] 5. East Africa (Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania).[2][4][5] 6. Southeast Africa (Mozambique).[6] 7. Native Southern Africans (!Xung, !Kung and Khwe khoisans).[4][7] 8. Mbenga Pygmies (Baka, Bi-Aka and Ba-Kola).[4][8] 9. Ba-Mbuti Pygmies.[4] 10. Hadza/Sandawe.[4]

  1. Rosa A. et al. 2004, MtDNA Profile of West Africa Guineans: Towards a Better Understanding of the Senegambia Region.
  2. Abu-Amero KK, Larruga JM, Cabrera VM, González AM (2008). "Mitochondrial DNA structure in the Arabian Peninsula". BMC Evol. Biol. 8: 45. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-8-45. PMC 2268671. PMID 18269758.
  3. Kivisild T, Reidla M, Metspalu E et al. (November 2004). "Ethiopian mitochondrial DNA heritage: tracking gene flow across and around the gate of tears". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 75 (5): 752–70. doi:10.1086/425161. PMC 1182106. PMID 15457403.
  4. Tishkoff SA, Gonder MK, Henn BM et al. (October 2007). "History of click-speaking populations of Africa inferred from mtDNA and Y chromosome genetic variation". Mol. Biol. Evol. 24 (10): 2180–95. doi:10.1093/molbev/msm155. PMID 17656633.
  5. Anderson, Sadie 2006, Phylogenetic and phylogeographic analysis of African mitochondrial DNA variation.
  6. Salas A, Richards M, De la Fe T et al. (November 2002). "The making of the African mtDNA landscape". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 71 (5): 1082–111. doi:10.1086/344348. PMC 385086. PMID 12395296.
  7. Chen YS, Olckers A, Schurr TG, Kogelnik AM, Huoponen K, Wallace DC (April 2000). "mtDNA variation in the South African Kung and Khwe-and their genetic relationships to other African populations". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 66 (4): 1362–83. doi:10.1086/302848. PMC 1288201. PMID 10739760.
  8. Quintana, Lluis et al 2003, MtDNA diversity in Central Africa: from hunter-gathering to agriculturalism
  9. Cherni L, Loueslati BY, Pereira L, Ennafaâ H, Amorim A, El Gaaied AB (February 2005). "Female gene pools of Berber and Arab neighboring communities in central Tunisia: microstructure of mtDNA variation in North Africa". Human Biology 77 (1): 61–70. doi:10.1353/hub.2005.0028. PMID 16114817.