Mitochondrial Haplogroup H

Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a very common and diverse mitochondrial lineage among populations in Europe, the Near East and the Caucasus region. The lineage is likely to have evolved around 25,000 years ago in West Asia, before being transported into Europe. The timing of the entry of the lineage into Europe is subject to debate, though certain lineages such as H1 and H3 are thought to have been introduced by late Upper Palaeolithic or Mesolithic hunter-gatherers up to 18,000 years ago, while other haplogroups including H2, H5, H7, H13 and H20 have been linked to the expansion of Neolithic farmers into the area around 7000 years ago.

 

Subclades

  • H1: found in Europe, North Africa, the Near East, Central Asia and North Asia
    • H1a
      • H1a1
        • H1a1a
          • H1a1a1
        • H1a1b
      • H1a2
      • H1a3
        • H1a3a
          • H1a3a1
          • H1a3a2
          • H1a3a3
        • H1a3b
        • H1a3c
      • H1a4
      • H1a5
      • H1a6
      • H1a7
      • H1a8
      • H1a9
    • H1b: found especially in Eastern Europe, Central Asia and North Asia
      • H1b1
        • H1b1a
        • H1b1b
        • H1b1c
        • H1b1d
        • H1b1e
        • H1b1f
        • H1b1g
        • H1b1h
      • H1b2
        • H1b2a
          • H1b2a1
      • H1b3
      • H1b4
    • H1c: found especially in Eastern Europe, Central Asia and North Asia
      • H1c1
        • H1c1a
          • H1c1a1
        • H1c1b
      • H1c2
        • H1c2a
      • H1c3
        • H1c3a
        • H1c3b
      • H1c4
        • H1c4a
        • H1c4b
          • H1c4b1
      • H1c5
        • H1c5a
      • H1c6
      • H1c7
      • H1c8
      • H1c9
        • H1c9a
      • H1c10
      • H1c11
      • H1c12
      • H1c13
      • H1c14
      • H1c15
      • H1c16
      • H1c17
      • H1c18
      • H1c19
      • H1c20
      • H1c21
      • H1c22
    • H1e: found throughout Europe, including among the Basques, and in Iran (Qashqai)
      • H1e1
        • H1e1a
          • H1e1a1
          • H1e1a2
          • H1e1a3
          • H1e1a4
          • H1e1a5
          • H1e1a6
        • H1e1b
          • H1e1b1
            • H1e1b1a
        • H1e1c
      • H1e2
        • H1e2a
        • H1e2b
        • H1e2c
        • H1e2d
      • H1e3
      • H1e4
        • H1e4a
      • H1e5
      • H1e6
    • H1f: found especially in Finland
      • H1f1
        • H1f1a
    • H1g: found especially in Germanic countries
      • H1g1
      • H1g2
    • H1h: found in Central Europe, Britain and Finland
      • H1h1
      • H1h2
    • H1i: found in Ireland and Scotland
      • H1i1
      • H1i2
        • H1i2a
    • H1j: found mostly in Western Europe, including among the Basques
      • H1j1
        • H1j1a
          • H1j1a1
          • H1j1a2
        • H1j1b
        • H1j1c
      • H1j2
        • H1j2a
      • H1j3
      • H1j4
      • H1j5
      • H1j6
      • H1j7
      • H1j8
      • H1j9
    • H1k: found in Germany
      • H1k1
        • H1k1a
    • H1m
      • H1m1
    • H1n: found especially in Germanic countries and Finland
      • H1n1
        • H1n1a
        • H1n1b
      • H1n2
      • H1n3
      • H1n4
      • H1n5
    • H1o: found among the Basques
    • H1p
    • H1q: found among the Basques
      • H1q1
      • H1q2
    • H1r: found in France and Spain
      • H1r1
    • H1s: found in Sweden
    • H1t: found among the Basques
      • H1t1
        • H1t1a
          • H1t1a1
      • H1t2
    • H1u
      • H1u1
    • H1v: found in Iberia, North Africa
      • H1va
        • H1v1a
        • H1v1b
    • H1w: found in North Africa
    • H1x: found in North Africa
    • H1y
    • H1z
      • H1z1
    • H1aa
    • H1ab: found in Italy
      • H1ab1
    • H1ac
    • H1ad
    • H1ae: found in Scandinavia
      • H1ae1
      • H1ae2
        • H1ae2a
      • H1ae3
        • H1ae3a
    • H1af
      • H1af1
        • H1af1a
      • H1af2
    • H1ag
      • H1ag1
        • H1ag1a
        • H1ag1b
    • H1ah: found among the Basque
      • H1ah1
      • H1ah2
    • H1ai
      • H1ai1
    • H1aj: found in Italy
      • H1aj1
        • H1aj1a
    • H1ak
      • H1ak1
      • H1ak2
    • H1am
      • H1am1
    • H1an: found throughout Spain, France and Italy
      • H1an1
        • H1an1a
      • H1an2
    • H1ao
      • H1ao1
    • H1ap
      • H1ap1
    • H1aq
      • H1aq1
    • H1ar
      • H1ar1
    • H1as
      • H1as1
        • H1as1a
      • H1as2
    • H1at
      • H1at1
        • H1at1a
    • H1au
      • H1au1
        • H1au1a
        • H1au1b
    • H1av: found in Britain and among the Basques
      • H1av1
        • H1av1a
    • H1aw: found in Britain
    • H1ax: found in Scandinavia
      • H1ax1
    • H1ay
    • H1az
    • H1ba: found in Italy
      • H1ba1
    • H1bb
    • H1bc
    • H1bd
    • H1be
    • H1bf: found among the Basques
      • H1bf1
    • H1bg
    • H1bh
    • H1bi
    • H1bj
    • H1bk
    • H1bm
    • H1bn
    • H1bo
    • H1bp: found among the Basques
    • H1bq
    • H1br
    • H1bs
    • H1bt
      • H1bt1
    • H1bu
    • H1bv
      • H1bv1
    • H1bw
    • H1bx
    • H1by
    • H1bz
    • H1cc
    • H1cd: found in Spain
  • H2: found throughout Europe and in the Caucasus
    • H2a
      • H2a1: found mostly in Eastern Europe, the North Caucasus and Central Asia, including Ireland, England, Denmark, Germany, Lithuania
        • H2a1a
          • H2a1a1
          • H2a1a2
        • H2a1b
        • H2a1c
        • H2a1d
        • H2a1e
          • H2a1e1
            • H2a1e1a
              • H2a1e1a1
            • H2a1e1b
        • H2a1f
        • H2a1g
      • H2a2: found throughout Europe, including Russia, Sweden, Finland, England, Scotland, Germany
        • H2a2a
          • H2a2a1
            • H2a2a1a
            • H2a2a1b
            • H2a2a1c
            • H2a2a1d
            • H2a2a1e
            • H2a2a1f
            • H2a2a1g
          • H2a2a2
        • H2a2b
      • H2a3: found in West Eurasia
        • H2a3a
          • H2a3a1
        • H2a3b
      • H2a4: found in West Eurasia
      • H2a5: found in Norway, Ireland, Slovakia and among the Basques
        • H2a5a: found throughout Europe
          • H2a5a1
            • H2a5a1a
            • H2a5a1b
        • H2a5b
          • H2a5b1
          • H2a5b2
    • H2b
    • H2c
      • H2c1
  • H3: found throughout Europe and in the Maghreb
    • H3a: found in north-west Europe
      • H3a1
        • H3a1a
    • H3b: found in the British Isles and Catalonia
      • H3b1
        • H3b1a
        • H3b1b
          • H3b1b1
            • H3b1b1a
      • H3b2
      • H3b3
      • H3b4
        • H3b4a
      • H3b5
    • H3c: found in Western Europe, including among the Basques
      • H3c1
      • H3c2
        • H3c2a
          • H3c2a1
        • H3c2b
          • H3c2b1
        • H3c2c
      • H3c3
    • H3d: found among the Basques
    • H3e
    • H3g: found in north-west Europe
      • H3g1
        • H3g1a
        • H3g1b
      • H3g2
      • H3g3
      • H3g4
    • H3h: found throughout northern Europe
      • H3h1
      • H3h2
      • H3h3
        • H3h3a
      • H3h4
      • H3h5
      • H3h6
    • H3i: found in Ireland and Scotland
      • H3i1
    • H3j: found in Italy
    • H3k: found in the British Isles and northern Spain
      • H3k1
        • H3k1a
    • H3m
    • H3n
    • H3p
    • H3q
      • H3q1
    • H3r
      • H3r1
    • H3s
    • H3y
    • H3u
      • H3u1
    • H3v: found especially in Germanic countries
      • H3v1
      • H3v2
    • H3w
    • H3x
      • H3x1
    • H3y
    • H3z: found in Atlantic Europe
      • H3z1
    • H3aa
    • H3ab
    • H3ac
    • H3ad
    • H3ae
    • H3af
    • H3ag: found in Belgium, Britain
      • H3ag1
    • H3ah: found in Ireland
    • H3ai
    • H3aj
    • H3ak
    • H3am
    • H3an
    • H3ao
      • H3ao1
    • H3ap
    • H3aq: found in Ireland
    • H3ar
    • H3as
    • H3at
      • H3at1
    • H3au
    • H3av
  • H4: found especially in central and western Europe, but also in the Near East and Caucasus
    • H4a: found across Europe, including Germany, England, Scotland, Spain, Italy, the Netherlands, Denmark, Bulgaria, Russia
      • H4a1
        • H4a1a
          • H4a1a1
            • H4a1a1a
              • H4a1a1a1
                • H4a1a1a1a
                  • H4a1a1a1a1
              • H4a1a1a2
              • H4a1a1a3
              • H4a1a1a4
          • H4a1a2
            • H4a1a2a
              • H4a1a2a1
          • H4a1a3
            • H4a1a3a
          • H4a1a4
            • H4a1a4a
            • H4a1a4b
              • H4a1a4b1
              • H4a1a4b2
          • H4a1a5
        • H4a1c
          • H4a1c1
            • H4a1c1a
          • H4a1c2
        • H4a1d
    • H4b: found in Western Eurasia, including Turkey, Syria
      • H4b1
    • H4c
      • H4c1
  • H5: found throughout the Near East and Europe
    • H5a
        • H5a1: found in most of Europe and Siberia
        • H5a1a
        • H5a1b
        • H5a1c
          • H5a1c1
            • H5a1c1a
          • H5a1c2
        • H5a1d
        • H5a1e
        • H5a1f
        • H5a1g
          • H5a1g1
            • H5a1g1a
          • H5a1g2
        • H5a1h
        • H5a1j
        • H5a1k
        • H5a1m
        • H5a1n
        • H5a1p
        • H5a1q
      • H5a2: found mostly in Eastern Europe
      • H5a3: found in Italy and Siberia
        • H5a3a
          • H5a3a1
          • H5a3a2
        • H5a3b
      • H5a4: found in Italy
        • H5a4a
          • H5a4a1
            • H5a4a1a
      • H5a5: found in Greece
      • H5a6: found in Italy
        • H5a6a
      • H5a7: found in Central Europe
      • H5a8: found in Finland and Britain
    • H5b
      • H5b1: found in north-west Europe
      • H5b2: found in north-west Europe
      • H5b3: found in Italy
      • H5b4: found in Romania
    • H5c
      • H5c1
        • H5c1a
      • H5c2
    • H5d
    • H5e: found in Northwestern Europe
      • H5e1
        • H5e1a
          • H5e1a1
        • H5e1b
    • H5f: found in Italy
    • H5g
    • H5h
    • H5j
    • H5k
    • H5m
    • H5n: found in Italy
    • H5p: found in Britain
    • H5q
    • H5r: found in Italy
      • H5r1
      • H5r2
    • H5s
    • H5t: found in Germany, Italy
    • H5u
  • H6: found throughout Europe, in the Near East and Central Asia
    • H6a: found mostly in Western Europe, including Georgia, Ukraine, Russia, also England
      • H6a1
        • H6a1a
          • H6a1a1
            • H6a1a1a
          • H6a1a2
            • H6a1a2a
            • H6a1a2b
              • H6a1a2b1
          • H6a1a3
            • H6a1a3
          • H6a1a4
          • H6a1a5
          • H6a1a6
          • H6a1a7
          • H6a1a8
            • H6a1a8a
        • H6a1b
          • H6a1b1
          • H6a1b2
            • H6a1b2a
            • H6a1b2b
            • H6a1b2c
            • H6a1b2d
          • H6a1b3
            • H6a1b3a
            • H6a1b3b
          • H6a1b4
      • H6a2
        • H6a2a
    • H6b: found in Germany, Italy
      • H6b1
    • H6c: found in Norway
      • H6c1
  • H7: found mostly in the Near East, Caucasus, Iran, Central Asia and Balto-Slavic countries
    • H7a
      • H7a1
        • H7a1a
        • H7a1b
        • H7a1c
      • H7a2
    • H7b
      • H7b1
      • H7b2
        • H7b2a
      • H7b3
      • H7b4
      • H7b5
      • H7b6
    • H7c
      • H7c1
      • H7c2
      • H7c3
      • H7c4
      • H7c5
    • H7d
      • H7d1
      • H7d2
        • H7d2a
      • H7d3
        • H7d3a
      • H7d4
      • H7d5
    • H76
    • H7f
    • H7g
    • H7h
    • H7i
  • H8
    • H8a: found in the Caucasus (Armenia), Syria, Anatolia and Greece
    • H8b
    • H8c: found in central and western Europe, Central Asia and the Altai
      • H8c1
      • H8c2
  • H9: found in Italy, India
    • H9a
  • H10: found throughout Europe
    • H10a
      • H10a1
        • H10a1a
          • H10a1a1
        • H10a1b
    • H10b
      • H10b1
    • H10c
      • H10c1
    • H10d
    • H10e
      • H10e1
        • H10e1a
      • H10e2
      • H10e3
        • H10e3a
    • H10f
    • H10g
    • H10h
  • H11: found chiefly in Central and Eastern Europe and in Central Asia. Probable Indo-European origin (R1a).
    • H11a
      • H11a1
      • H11a2
        • H11a2a
          • H11a2a1
          • H11a2a2
          • H11a2a3
      • H11a3
      • H11a4
      • H11a5
      • H11a6
      • H11a7
    • H11b
      • H11b1
  • H12: found in Italy
  • H13: found mostly around the Caucasus, Iran, Anatolia, and Sardinia, but also across along the Mediterranean coasts of Europe
    • H13a
      • H13a1
        • H13a1a
          • H13a1a1
            • H13a1a1a
            • H13a1a1b
            • H13a1a1c
            • H13a1a1d
              • H13a1a1d1
            • H13a1a1e
          • H13a1a2
            • H13a1a2a
            • H13a1a2b
          • H13a1a3
          • H13a1a4
          • H13a1a5
          • H13a1a6
        • H12a1b
        • H13a1c
        • H13a1d
      • H13a2
    • H13b
      • H13b1
        • H13b1a
        • H13b1b
      • H13b2
    • H13c
      • H13c1
  • H14: found mostly in the Near East and Caucasus
    • H14a
      • H14a1
      • H14a2
    • H14b: found in Iran
      • H14b1
      • H14b2
  • H15: found in Scotland, Germany, Poland, Austria, northern Italy, Central Asia (Turkmenistan), Iran and northern India. Probable Indo-European origin (R1b).
    • H15a
      • H15a1
        • H15a1a
        • H15a1b
    • H15b
      • H15b1
  • H16: found primarily in Germanic countries
    • H16a
      • H16a1
    • H16b
    • H16c
    • H16d
  • H17: found in northern Europe
    • H17a
      • H17a1
      • H17a2
    • H17b
    • H17c
  • H18: found in the Arabian peninsula
    • H18b
  • H19: found in the Caucasus
  • H20: found around the Near East and the Caucasus
    • H20a
    • H20b
    • H20c
  • H21: found in the Caucasus
  • H22
  • H23: found in Russia
  • H24: found in England
    • H24a
      • H24a1
      • H24a2
    • H24b
  • H25
  • H26: found mostly in central and south-east Europe and Anatolia
    • H26a
      • H26a1
        • H26a1a
          • H26a1a1
    • H26b
    • H26c
  • H27: found in central and northern Europe, but also in Central Asia (Turkmenistan)
    • H27a
    • H27b
    • H27c
    • H27d
  • H28: found in Scandinavia
    • H28a
      • H28a1
  • H29: found in the Near East
  • H30: found in Germany
    • H30a
    • H30b
      • H30b1
  • H31: found throughout Europe, including England and Italy
    • H31a
    • H31b
  • H32
  • H33: found throughout Europe and the Near East, including England, Turkey and Syria
    • H33a
    • H33b
    • H33c
  • H34
  • H35
    • H35a
  • H36: found in Germany
  • H39
    • H39a
      • H39a1
    • H39b
  • H40
    • H40a
    • H40b
  • H41
    • H41a
  • H42
    • H42a
      • H42a1
  • H43
  • H44
    • H44a
      • H44a1
    • H44b
  • H45: found mostly in Finland
    • H45a
    • H45b
  • H47
    • H47a
  • H48
  • H49: found essentially in Germanic countries, but also in Azerbaijan
    • H49a
      • H49a1
      • H49a2
    • H49b
  • H50
  • H51
    • H51a
  • H53
  • H54
  • H55: found in France
    • H55a
  • H56
    • H56a
      • H56a1
    • H56b
  • H57
  • H58
    • H58a
  • H59
    • H59a
  • H60
    • H60a
  • H61
  • H62
  • H63: found in Sweden
    • H63a
  • H64
  • H65
    • H65a
  • H66
    • H66a
      • H66a1
  • H67
    • H67a
  • H69
  • H70: found in Italy
  • H71
  • H72
  • H73: found in Denmark and Germany
    • H73a
      • H73a1
  • H74
  • H75
  • H76
  • H77
  • H78
  • H79
    • H79a
  • H80
  • H81
    • H81a
  • H82
  • H83
  • H84
  • H85: found in Eastern Europe
  • H86
  • H87
  • H88
  • H89
  • H90
  • H91: found in Italy
  • H92: found across Eurasia, including Italy and the Druze
  • H93: found in Italy
  • H94
  • H95: found in Italy
    • H95a
  • H96: found in Russia
  • H100: found in Scotland

 

Links

http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_H_mtDNA.shtml

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_H_%28mtDNA%29