Mitochondrial Haplogroup B

Mitochondrial haplogroup B is likely to have arisen in Asia around 50,000 years ago. It is a common haplogroup in Asia and South East Asia. It is also found among indigenous American populations who spread into the Americas during the Last Glacial Maximum (Haplogroup B2), as well as among Pacific Islanders (Haplogroup B4), including Māori, and the indigenous peoples of Madagascar. In many Polynesian populations, lineages derived from the B4a1a mitochondrial subclade reach frequencies of up to 96%, a result of serial founder effects during the Oceanic colonisation process.

Subclades

 

  • B4: widely distributed across Asia
    • B4a
      • B4a1
        • B4a1a
          • B4a1a1: often referred to as the Polynesian Motif. Found among Polynesians, but also other Oceanic populations such Micronesians, coastal Papuans, Solomon Islanders, Filipinos
            • B4a1a1a
              • B4a1a1a1: found in New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tokelau
                • B4a1a1a1a
                  • B4a1a1a1a1
                • B4a1a1a1b
              • B4a1a1a2: found in New Guinea and the Solomon Islands
                • B4a1a1a2a
              • B4a1a1a3: found in the Solomon Islands
              • B4a1a1a4: found in New Guinea and the Solomon Islands
              • B4a1a1a5: found in the Solomon Islands
              • B4a1a1a6: found in the Solomon Islands
              • B4a1a1a7: found in the Solomon Islands
              • B4a1a1a8: found in the Solomon Islands
              • B4a1a1a9: found in the Solomon Islands
              • B4a1a1a10: found in the Solomon Islands
              • B4a1a1a11: found in the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu
                • B4a1a1a11a
              • B4a1a1a12: found in the Solomon Islands
              • B4a1a1a13: found in the Solomon Islands, Samoa
            • B4a1a1b: known as the Malagasy Motif, found among the Malagasy of Madagascar
            • B4a1a1c: found in East Polynesia, including NZ Māori (including an ancient individual from Wairau Bar), Hawaii, Marquesas
            • B4a1a1d: found in the Solomon Islands, Kavieng (New Ireland, PNG)
            • B4a1a1e: found in the Solomon Islands
            • B4a1a1f: found in the Solomon Islands
            • B4a1a1g: found in the Solomon Islands
            • B4a1a1h: found in the Solomon Islands, Gambier Islands, Tuamotu Archipelago, Austral Islands
            • B4a1a1i: found in the Solomon Islands
            • B4a1a1j: found in the Solomon Islands
            • B4a1a1k: found in the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Samoa
            • B4a1a1m: found in the Solomon Islands (Ontong Java), NZ Māori, Cook Islands, French Polynesia
            • B4a1a1n: found in the Solomon Islands, ancient NZ Māori from Wairau Bar
            • B4a1a1o: found in the Solomon Islands
            • B4a1a1p: found in the Solomon Islands
            • B4a1a1q: found in New Guinea, Solomon Islands
            • B4a1a1r: found in NZ Māori
            • B4a1a1x: found in Micronesia
            • B4a1a1y: found in the Solomon Islands
          • B4a1a2: found in Taiwanese aborigines
          • B4a1a3: found in Taiwanese aborigines, Borneo, Philippines
            • B4a1a3a
              • B4a1a3a1
          • B4a1a4: found in the Philippines, Taiwanese aborigines
          • B4a1a5: found in the Philippines, Malaysia
            • B4a1a5a
          • B4a1a6: found in the Philippines
            • B4a1a6a
        • B4a1b: found in Japan, Korea
          • B4a1b1
            • B4a1b1a
        • B4a1c: found in Siberia, China, Japan, Thailand
          • B4a1c1
            • B4a1c1a
              • B4a1c1a1
          • B4a1c2
          • B4a1c3
            • B4a1c3a
            • B4a1c3b
          • B4a1c4
        • B4a1d: found in Vietnam
        • B4a1e: found in China
      • B4a2
        • B4a2a: found in Indonesia, Philippines
        • B4a2b: found in China, Japan
          • B4a2b1
            • B4a2b1a
      • B4a3: found in Tibet, China, Japan
      • B4a4: found in Japan, China
    • B4b
      • B2: found in indigenous Americans
        • B2a: found in Canada, USA, Mexico
          • B2a1
            • B2a1a
              • B2a1a1
            • B2a1b
          • B2a2
          • B2a3
          • B2a4
            • B2a4a
              • B2a4a1
          • B2a5
        • B2b: Venezuela, Colombia, Brazil, Bolivia, Puerto Rico, Mexico
          • B2b1
          • B2b2
            • B2b2a
          • B2b3
            • B2b3a
          • B2b4
        • B2c: USA, Mexico
          • B2c1
            • B2c1a
            • B2c1b
            • B2c1c
          • B2c2
            • B2c2a
            • B2c2b
        • B2d: Colombia, Venezuela
        • B2e
        • B2e
        • B2f
        • B2g
          • B2g1
          • B2g2
        • B2h
        • B2i
          • B2i1
          • B2i2
            • B2i2a
              • B2i2a1
                • B2i2a1a
                • B2i2a1b
            • B2i2b
              • B2i2b1
        • B2j
        • B2k
        • B2l
        • B2m
        • B2n
        • B2o
          • B2o1
            • B2o1a
        • B2p
        • B2q
        • B2r
        • B2s
        • B2t
        • B2u
        • B2v
        • B2w
        • B2y
          • B2y1
      • B4b1: found in Southern China, South East Asia particularly Filipinos, Taiwanese aborigines, Japan, Siberia, Tokelau
    • B4c
      • B4c1: found in Japan, China, Siberia, Mongolia, Taiwan, Philippines
      • B4c2: found in China, Uzbekistan, Japan, Thailand, Vietnam
    • B4d: found in China, Mongolia, Japan
    • B4e: found in China, Japan
    • B4f: found in Japan
    • B4g: found in China, Thailand, Vietnam
      • B4g1
        • B4g1a
        • B4g1b
    • B4h: found in China
      • B4h1
    • B4i: found in China
      • B4i1
    • B4j: found in Siberia
    • B4k: found in China
  • B5: found in China, South East Asia
    • B5a: found in China, Taiwan, Thailand, Cambodia, Indonesia, Philippines, Andaman Islands
      • B5a1
        • B5a1a
          • B5a1a1
        • B5a1b
          • B5a1b1
        • B5a1c
          • B5a1c1
        • B5a1d
      • B5a2
        • B5a2a
          • B5a2a1
          • B5a2a2
    • B5b: found in Japan, China, Siberia, Philippines
      • B5b1
        • B5b1a
          • B5b1a1
          • B5b1a2
            • B5b1a2a
        • B5b1c
          • B5b1c1
            • B5b1c1a
      • B5b2
        • B5b2a
          • B5b2a1
            • B5b2a1a
            • B5b2a1b
              • B5b2a1b1
        • B5b2c
      • B5b3
        • B5b3a
        • B5b3b
      • B5b4

 

Links

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_B_%28mtDNA%29