Mitochondrial Haplogroup U

Mitochondrial haplogroup U is a diverse haplotype with many sub-lineages. The lineage diverged around 55,000 years ago, and because of this early split, U lineages are found across a wide geographical area. Haplogroup U can be split into 9 sub-hplogroups. These will be described below.

 

Subclades

  • U1: occurs mostly in the Middle East, however is also present in Europe at low frequency, particularly in the Mediterranean region.
    • U1a – found in India to Europe – though very rare in Western Europe
      • U1a1
        • U1a1a
          • U1a1a1
          • U1a1a2
        • U1a1b
        • U1a1c
          • U1a1c1
          • U1a1c2
          • U1a1c3
          • U1a1c4
        • U1a1d
      • U1a2
      • U1a3
    • U1b – rarer than U1a but with a similar range, some examples have been found among Jewish Disapora.
      • U1b1
  • U2: most common in South Asia, but also found at low frequency in Central and West Asia and Europe
    • U2a
      • U2a1
        • U2a1a
        • U2a1b
      • U2a2
    • U2b
      • U2b1
        • U2b1a
      • U2b2
    • U2c
      • U2c1
        • U2c1a
        • U2c1b
    • U2d
      • U2d1
      • U2d2
      • U2d3
    • U2e
      • U2e1
        • U2e1a
          • U2e1a1
            • U2e1a1a
            • U2e1a1b
        • U2e1b
          • U2e1b1
          • U2e1b2
        • U2e1c
          • U2e1c1
        • U2e1d
        • U2e1e
        • U2e1f
          • U2e1f1
        • U2e1g
        • U2e1h
      • U2e2
        • U2e2a
          • U2e2a1
          • U2e2a2
          • U2e2a3
          • U2e2a4
      • U2e3
        • U2e3a
  • U3: mitochondrial haplogroup U3 is found throughout Europe (around 1% of the population), the Near East (around 2.5% of the population) and South and Central Asia (around 1%).
    • U3a
      • U3a1
        • U3a1a
          • U3a1a1
        • U3a1b
        • U3a1c
          • U3a1c1
      • U3a2
      • U3a3
    • U3b
      • U3b1
        • U3b1a
        • U3b1b
      • U3b2
        • U3b2a
          • U3b2a1
        • U3b2b
      • U3b3
    • U3c
  • U4: Mitochondrial haplogroup U4 is found throughout Eurasia. It originated probably around 25,000 years ago during the Last Glacial Maximum. It has been identified in ancient remains from Mesolithic Russia, Lithuania, Sweden, Germany and Portugal. Haplogroup U4 is widely distributed throughout Europe and Central Asia.
    • U4a
      • U4a1: found in northern and central Europe, Cantabria, in Central Asia (Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan), Iran, Pakistan (Kalash, Balochi), and India
        • U4a1a: found mostly in Scandinavia, Germany and Poland
          • U4a1a1: found in Poland and Russia
        • U4a1b: found in Poland
          • U4a1b1: found in Slovakia, Germany, Switzerland and Britain
        • U4a1c: found in Central Europe
        • U4a1d: found in Russia, including northern Siberia (Nganasan)
      • U4a2: found in northern and central Europe, as well as in Central Asia (Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan)
        • U4a2a: found in Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, Scandinavia, Iran (Qashqai) and Central Asia (Kyrgyzstan)
          • U4a2a1
        • U4a2b: found mostly in central Europe and Russia, but also in Scandinavia and the Netherlands
        • U4a2c
          • U4a2c1
        • U4a2d: found in Ukraine and the British Isles
        • U4a2e: found in Poland
        • U4a2f
        • U4a2g: found in Russia
        • U4a2h: found in Britain
      • U4a3: found in Poland, Germany, Switzerland, Denmark, Belgium and England
        • U4a3a
    • U4b
      • U4b1
        • U4b1a
          • U4b1a1: found in Norway, Iceland and Central Asia (Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan)
            • U4b1a1a: found in Germany and Italy
              • U4b1a1a1: found in the northeast Caucasus, Iran (Persians), central Europe, France and Italy
          • U4b1a2: found in the British Isles and Norway
            • U4b1a2a: found in Poland
            • U4b1a2b
          • U4b1a3
            • U4b1a3a: found in Poland, Germany and Italy
          • U4b1a4: found in the Altai (Tubalar)
        • U4b1b
          • U4b1b1: found in Lithuania, Germany, the British Isles and northern Turkey
            • U4b1b1a: found in the British Isles
          • U4b1b2
      • U4b2: found in Scandinavia and Pakistan (Hunza Burusho)
        • U4b2a: found in France
          • U4b2a1: found in central Europe, Denmark, Ireland and Cantabria
      • U4b3: found in Russia, Greece and Austria
    • U4c
      • U4c1: found in most of Europe as well as in Iran (Persians) and in Central Asia (Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan)
        • U4c1a: found in most of Europe, but also in Iran (Persians) and Siberia
      • U4c2
        • U4c2a: found in Poland and the British Isles
    • U4d
      • U4d1: found in Russia, Baltic countries, Poland, Czechia, Germany, the Netherlands and Scandinavia
        • U4d1a
          • U4b1d1a1: found in Germany, Sweden and especially Finland
        • U4d1b: found in Poland
      • U4d2: found in central Europe and the northern Siberia (Nganasan)
      • U4d3: found in Ukraine, Germany, and the British Isles
  • U5: the age of mitochondrial haplogroup U5 is debated. It may have arisen as early as 50,000 years ago or as recently as 25,000 years ago. Either way, it was a dominant maternal lineage among Palaeolithic and Mesolithic hunter-gatherers in Europe, which explains its wide distribution across Europe and West Asia. The haplogroup is present among around 11% of the total modern European population. It is also present at lower frequencies and with much lower diversity in the Near East and parts of northern Africa.
    • U5a
      • U5a1: found in most of Europe, Siberia, Central Asia, South Asia (incl. India) and the Middle East
        • U5a1a
          • U5a1a1: found mostly in northern, central and eastern Europe and in Central Asia (Uzbekistan)
            • U5a1a1a: found in Poland
            • U5a1a1b: found in Sweden
            • U5a1a1c: found in Sweden
            • U5a1a1d: found in the British Isles and Scandinavia
            • U5a1a1e
            • U5a1a1f
            • U5a1a1g
            • U5a1a1h
          • U5a1a2: found in England, Scandinavia, Central Europe and Turkey
            • U5a1a2a
              • U5a1a2a1
                • U5a1a2a1a
            • U5a1a2b
              • U5a1a2b1
        • U5a1b
          • U5a1b1: found in most of Europe and in Kyrgyzstan
            • U5a1b1a
              • U5a1b1a1
              • U5a1b1a2
            • U5a1b1b: found in the British Isles, Scandinavia and Russia
              • U5a1b1b1
            • U5a1b1c: found in Denmark, Finland and Serbia
              • U5a1b1c1
              • U5a1b1c2
            • U5a1b1d: found in Germany and Russia
            • U5a1b1e: found in England, France, Germany and Norway
            • U5a1b1f
          • U5a1b2
          • U5a1b3: found in the northern half of Europe
          • U5a1b4: found in the British Isles
        • U5a1c: found in France, Germany, Poland, Lithuania and Sicily
          • U5a1c1
            • U5a1c1a
          • U5a1c2: found in Scandinavia and Pomerania
            • U5a1c2a
        • U5a1d
          • U5a1d1: found in Ukraine
          • U5a1d2: found in the northern half of Europe
            • U5a1d2a
              • U5a1d2a1
            • U5a1d2b
        • U5a1e
        • U5a1f: found in the northern half of Europe
          • U5a1f1: found in central and northern Europe
            • U5a1f1a
              • U5a1f1a1
          • U5a1f2
        • U5a1g: found in the British Isles, northern Italy, Russia and Iran
          • U5a1g1
        • U5a1h: found in the British Isles
        • U5a1i
        • U5a1j
      • U5a2: found in the northern half of Europe
        • U5a2a: found across northern Europe (including Mesolithic Germany), in Croatia, European Russia, Iran (Persians), Central Asia (Kyrgyzstan, Kazakstan) and Siberia
          • U5a2a1: found mostly in Finland, but also in Spain, the British Isles, Germany, Poland and Scandinavia
            • U5a2a1a
            • U5a2a1b
              • U5a2a1b1
            • U5a2a1c
            • U5a2a1d
            • U5a2a1e
        • U5a2b
          • U5a2b1: found in western and central Europe, in Russia and in Kazakhstan
            • U5a2b1a
            • U5a2b1b
            • U5a2b1c
            • U5a2b1d
          • U5a2b2: found in Ukraine and northern Italy
            • U5a2b2a
              • U5a2b2a1
          • U5a2b3: found in England, Hungary and Finland
            • U5a2b3a
              • U5a2b3a1
          • U5a2b4: found in Ireland, France and Norway
          • U5a2b5
        • U5a2c
          • U5a2c1: found across northern Europe
          • U5a2c2: found in Italy
          • U5a2c3: found in the British Isles, France, Mesolithic Germany and the Maghreb
            • U5a2c3a
          • U5a2c4: found in Russia
        • U5a2d: found in western Europe, Scandinavia and Poland
          • U5a2d1: found in Scotland, Norway and Sweden
            • U5a2d1a
        • U5a2e: found in Finland, Slovenia and the Czech Republic
    • U5b
      • U5b1: found in northwest Africa, western, central and north-east Europe, Central Asia and Siberia
        • U5b1a: found in Britain and Mesolithic Luxembourg
        • U5b1b
          • U5b1b1: found across Europe and in the Maghreb
            • U5b1b1a: found among the Saami (main and almost sole subclade), the Finns and the Yakuts
              • U5b1b1a1
                • U5b1b1a1a
                  • U5b1b1a1a1a
              • U5b1b1a2
            • U5b1b1b: found among the Berbers and the Fulbe from Senegal
            • U5b1b1d: found in Spain and Italy
            • U5b1b1e: found among the Berbers
            • U5b1b1f: found in Russia and Poland
          • U5b1b2: found mostly in Finland, but also in Norway and Ireland
            • U5b1b2a
        • U5b1c
          • U5b1c1: found among the Basques, in the British Isles, Norway and Italy
            • U5b1c1a
              • U5b1c1a1
          • U5b1c2: found in Britain, Italy, Croatia and Central Asia (Tajikistan, Uzbekistan)
            • U5b1c2a
            • U5b1c2b
        • U5b1d
          • U5b1d1
            • U5b1d1a: found among the Berbers
            • U5b1d1b: found in Italy and Siberia
            • U5b1d1c: found in the British Isles, France and Slovakia
          • U5b1d2: found in Ireland
        • U5b1e: found in Poland, Ukraine and Latvia
          • U5b1e1: found in central Europe and Scandinavia and north-west Russia
            • U5b1e1a
        • U5b1f: found among the Basques
          • U5b1f1
            • U5b1f1a
        • U5b1g: found in northern Spain
        • U5b1h
      • U5b2: found in northern and central Europe, Russia, Central Asia, Siberia and India
        • U5b2a: found in Neolithic Germany
          • U5b2a1: in Cantabria, the British Isles, the Low Countries, Germany, Scandinavia, Finland, Serbia, Russia and Central Asia
            • U5b2a1a: found in the British Isles, Germany, Scandinavia, Finland, Russia and Iran (Persians)
            • U5b2a1b: found in central and north-western Europe
        • U5b2a
          • U5b2a2: found mostly in northern and central Europe (including Mesolithic Germany), but also in Lebanon, Kazakhstan and Siberia
          • U5b2a3: found in Ireland
          • U5b2a4: found in Britain, Scandinavia and Central Asia
          • U5b2a5: found in England, Finland and Tajikistan
          • U5b2a6
        • U5b2b
          • U5b2b1: found in northern and central Europe
          • U5b2b2
          • U5b2b3: found across western Europe
          • U5b2b4: found in the England, Scandinavia, Germany and Poland
        • U5b2c
          • U5b2c1: found in the British Isles, France, Germany and Mesolithic Spain
          • U5b2c2: found in the British Isles, France, Germany and Scandinavia
      • U5b3:found especially in Sardinia, but also in parts of western, central and southern Europe, in the South Caucasus and Mesopotamia
        • U5b3a
          • U5b3a1: found mostly in Sardinia
            • U5b3a1a
            • U5b3a1b
          • U5b3a2: found in Italy, Greece, the Maghreb, France, England and Estonia
        • U5b3b: found in Italy and Czechia
          • U5b3b1
        • U5b3c: found in Sardinia and southern Italy
        • U5b3d: found in Spain and Iraq
        • U5b3e: found in Poland
        • U5b3f: found in Italy
        • U5b3g: found in southern Italy
  • U6: Mitochondrial haplogroup U6 is common in North Africa (present in around 10% of the people), though occurs even more frequently among Algerian Mozabites (29%) and the Canary Island (18%). The lineage is thought to have entered the region around 30,000 years ago from the Near East. It is also found in the Iberian peninsula (ie Spain and Portugal) and Eastern Africa.
    • U6a
      • U6a1: found in Portugal, Spain, Italy, Algeria, Morocco
        • U6a1a
          • U6a1a1
          • U6a1a2
        • U6a1b
          • U6a1b1
            • U6a1b1a
            • U6a1b1b
          • U6a1b2
          • U6a1b3
      • U6a2: found in Ethiopia, Egypt, Portugal, Italy, Armenia
        • U6a2a
          • U6a2a1
          • U6a2a2
            • U6a2a2a
        • U6a2b
          • U6a2b1
        • U6a2c
      • U6a3: found in Morocco, Portugal, Bulgaria, Turkey, Tunisia,
        • U6a3a
          • U6a3a1
            • U6a3a1a
          • U6a3a2
            • U6a3a2a
        • U6a3b
          • U6a3b1
        • U6a3c
        • U6a3d
          • U6a3d1
            • U6a3d1a
        • U6a3e
        • U6a3f
          • U6a3f1
          • U6a3f2
      • U6a4: found in Iraq, Italy
      • U6a5: found in Chad, Tunisia, Cameroon, Nigeria, Italy
        • U6a5a
          • U6a5a1
        • U6a5b
      • U6a6: found in Morocco, Tunisia
        • U6a6a
          • U6a6a1
        • U6a6b
          • U6a6b1
          • U6a6b2
      • U6a7: found in Mauritania, Tunisia, Algeria, France, Italy, Scotland
        • U6a7a
          • U6a7a1
            • U6a7a1a
            • U6a7a1b
            • U6a7a1c
          • U6a7a2
            • U6a7a2a
        • U6a7b
          • U6a7b1
        • U6a7c
          • U6a7c1
      • U6a8: found in Morocco, Tunisia
        • U6a8a
        • U6a8b
    • U6b: found in the Canary Islands, Spain, Tunisia, Morocco, Ghana
      • U6b1
        • U6b1a
          • U6b1a1
        • U6b1b
      • U6b2
      • U6b3
        • U6b3a
    • U6c: found in the Canary Islands, Spain, Italy, Morocco, France
      • U6c1
      • U6c2
    • U6d: found in Italy, Portugal, Morocco, Algeria, Ethiopia
      • U6d1
        • U6d1a
        • U6d1b
      • U6d2
      • U6d3
        • U6d3a
  • U7: found in Iran, Armenia, Italy Finland, India, Siberia,
    • U7a
      • U7a1
      • U7a2
      • U7a3
      • U7a4
      • U7a5
    • U7b
      • U7b1
  • U8
    • U8a: found in Spain, Finland, Sweden, England, Scotland, Ashkenazi Jews
      • U8a1
        • U8a1a
          • U8a1a1
            • U8a1a1a
            • U8a1a1b
              • U8a1a1b1
          • U8a1a2
          • U8a1a3
          • U8a1a4
        • U8a1b
      • U8a2
    • U8b: found in Italy, Jordan, Ashkenazi Jews
      • U8b1
        • U8b1a
          • U8b1a1
          • U8b1a2
        • U8b1b
          • U8b1b1
      • K
    • U8c

Links

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_U_%28mtDNA%29