Mitochondrial Haplogroup M

Mitochondrial haplogroup M is a huge haplogroup, encompassing many sublineages. All mitochondrial haplogroups considered native outside of Africa are descendants either of the M or N macro-haplogroups. The M haplogroup is thought to have evolved in Asia around 60,000 years ago. This assumption is based on the high frequency and variability of M subclades in Asia.

 

Subclades

  • M1: only variant of haplogroup M found in Africa, also found around the Mediterranean and the Middle East
    • M1a
      • M1a1
        • M1a1a
          • M1a1a1a1
        • M1a1b
          • M1a1b1
            • M1a1b1a
            • M1a1b1b
              • M1a1b1b1
            • M1a1b1c
          • M1a1b2
        • M1a1c
        • M1a1d
        • M1a1e
          • M1a1e1
          • M1a1e2
        • M1a1f
        • M1a1g
        • M1a1h
        • M1a1i
      • M1a2
        • M1a2a
        • M1a2b
      • M1a3
        • M1a3a
        • M1a3b
          • M1a3b1
      • M1a4
        • M1a4a
      • M1a5
      • M1a6
      • M1a7
      • M1a8
    • M1b
      • M1b1
        • M1b1a
        • M1b1b
      • M1b2
        • M1b2a
        • M1b2b
        • M1b2c
  • M2: found almost exclusively in South Asia
    • M2a
      • M2a1
        • M2a1a
          • M2a1a1
            • M2a1a1a
              • M2a1a1a1
            • M2a1a1b
              • M2a1a1b1
          • M2a1a2
            • M2a1a2a
              • M2a1a2a1
                • M2a1a2a1a
          • M2a1a3
            • M2a1a3a
              • M2a1a3a1
            • M2a1a3b
        • M2a1b
        • M2a1c
      • M2a2
        • M2a2a
      • M2a3
        • M2a3a
    • M2b
      • M2b1
        • M2b1a
        • M2b1b
      • M2b2
      • M2b3
        • M2b3a
      • M2b4
    • M2c
  • M3: found almost exclusively in South Asia
    • M3a
      • M3a1
        • M3a1a
      • M3a2
        • M3a2a
    • M3b
    • M3c
      • M3c1
        • M3c1a
        • M3c1b
          • M3c1b1
            • M3c1b1a
            • M3c1b1b
      • M3c2
    • M3d
      • M3d1
        • M3d1a
          • M3d1a1
  • M4: found almost exclusively in South Asia
  • M5: found almost exclusively in South Asia, including Sherpa from Nepal and Tibet
    • M5a
      • M5a1
        • M5a1a
        • M5a1b: also found in Russia
      • M5a2
        • M5a2a
          • M5a2a1
            • M5a2a1a: also found in Kazakhstan
          • M5a2a2
          • M5a2a3
      • M5a3
        • M5a3a
        • M5a3b
      • M5a4
      • M5a5
    • M5b
      • M5b1
      • M5b2
        • M5b2a
        • M5b2b
          • M5b2b1
            • M5b2b1a
    • M5c
      • M5c1
      • M5c2
    • M5d
  • M6: found almost exclusively in South Asia
    • M6a
      • M6a1
        • M6a1a
        • M6a1b
      • M6a2
    • M6b
  • M7
    • M7a: found in Japan
      • M7a1
        • M7a1a
          • M7a1a1
            • M7a1a1a
          • M7a1a2
          • M7a1a3
          • M7a1a4
            • M7a1a4a
          • M7a1a5
            • M7a1a5a
          • M7a1a6
            • M7a1a6a
          • M7a1a7
          • M7a1a8
          • M7a1a9
        • M7a1b
          • M7a1b1: found also in Taiwan
          • M7a1b2
      • M7a2: found also in Siberia
        • M7a2a
          • M7a2a1
          • M7a2a2
    • M7b: found in throughout East Asia (China, Japan, Siberia), mainland and island Southeast Asia (Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand, Taiwan, Indonesia, Philippines)
      • M7b1
        • M7b1a
          • M7b1a1
            • M7b1a1a
              • M7b1a1a1
                • M7b1a1a1a
                • M7b1a1a1b
                • M7b1a1a1b1
                • M7b1a1a1c
                • M7b1a1a1d
              • M7b1a1a2
              • M7b1a1a3
            • M7b1a1b
            • M7b1a1c
              • M7b1a1c1
            • M7b1a1d
              • M7b1a1d1
            • M7b1a1e
              • M7b1a1e1
              • M7b1a1e2
            • M7b1a1f
            • M7b1a1g
            • M7b1a1h
            • M7b1a1i
          • M7b1a2
            • M7b1a2a
              • M7b1a2a1
        • M7b1b
      • M7b2
        • M7b2a
    • M7c: found throughout Asia, including in China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, Azerbaijan, Mongolia, Siberia, Indonesia, Philippines and the Ladakh from the Indian Himalayas
      • M7c1
        • M7c1a
          • M7c1a1
            • M7c1a1a
              • M7c1a1a1
          • M7c1a2
            • M7c1a2a
              • M7c1a2a1
          • M7c1a3
            • M7c1a3a
          • M7c1a4
            • M7c1a4a
            • M7c1a4b
          • M7c1a5
        • M7c1b
          • M7c1b1
          • M7c1b2
            • M7c1b2a
            • M7c1b2b
        • M7c1c
          • M7c1c1
          • M7c1c2
            • M7c1c2a
          • M7c1c3
            • M7c1c3a
              • M7c1c3a1
            • M7c1c3b
            • M7c1c3c
            • M7c1c3d
            • M7c1c3e
            • M7c1c3f
            • M7c1c3g
            • M7c1c3h
            • M7c1c3i
      • M7c2
        • M7c2a
      • M7c3
  • M8: found in Japan, China
    • M8a
      • M8a1
      • M8a2
        • M8a2a
          • M8a2a1
        • M8a2b
        • M8a2c
        • M8a2d
      • M8a3
        • M8a3a
          • M8a3a1
    • CZ
      • C – see C page
      • Z – see Z page
  • M9
    • M9a: found across Asia, including Japan, Korea, China, the Monpa and Sherpa of Tibet, the Ladakh of the Indian Himalayas, India, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Siberia, Vietnam
      • M9a1
        • M9a1a
          • M9ala1
            • M9a1a1a
            • M9a1a1b
            • M9a1a1c
              • M9a1a1c1
                • M9a1a1c1a
                • M9a1a1c1b
                • M9a1a1c1c
            • M9a1a1d
          • M9a1a2
        • M9a1b
          • M9a1b1
            • M9a1b1a
              • M9a1b1a1
            • M9a1b1b
            • M9a1b1c
          • M9a1b2
      • M9a4
        • M9a4a
          • M9a4a1
        • M9a4b
      • M9a5
    • M9b: found in East and Southeast Asia, including China, Vietnam
    • E – see E page
  • M10: found across Asia, including China, Japan, Siberia, India, Myanmar, as well as Eastern Europe (north-western Russia)
    • M10a
      • M10a1
        • M10a1a
          • M10a1a1
            • M10a1a1a
            • M10a1a1b
              • M10a1a1b1
      • M10a2
  • M11: found across Asia, including India, China, Japan, Tibet, Siberia
    • M11a
      • M11a1
      • M11a2
    • M11b
      • M11b1
        • M11b1a
      • M11b2
    • M11c
    • M11d
  • M12: found across Asia, including China, Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand, India
    • M12a
      • M12a1
        • M12a1a
          • M12a1a1
          • M12a1a2
        • M12a1b
      • M12a2
    • M12b
      • M12b1
        • M12b1a
          • M12b1a1
          • M12b1a2
            • M12b1a2a
            • M12b1a2b
        • M12b1b
      • M12b2
        • M12b2a
  • M13: found across Asia, including India, Japan, China, Mongolia, Tibet, Nepal, Thailand, Malaysia
    • M13a
      • M13a1
        • M13a1a
        • M13a1b
      • M13a2
    • M13b
      • M13b1
      • M13b2
    • M13c
  • M14: found in Australian aborigines and also on the Arabian Peninsula
  • M15: found in Australian aborigines
  • M17: found in mainland and island Southeast Asia, including Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Indonesia, Philippines
    • M17a
    • M17c
      • M17c1
        • M17c1a
          • M17c1a1
            • M17c1a1a
  • M18: found almost exclusively in South Asia, Southeast Asia
    • M18a
    • M18b
    • M18c
  • M19: found in the Philippines
  • M20
  • M21: found in mainland and island Southeast Asia, including Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand, Malaysia, Philippines
    • M21a
    • M21b
      • M21b1
        • M21b1a
      • M21b2
  • M22: found in mainland and island Southeast Asia, including Vietnam, Malaysia
    • M22a
    • M22b
  • M23: found in the Malagasy in Madagascar
  • M24: found in mainland and island Southeast Asia, including Cambodia, the Philippines, also China
    • M24a
    • M24b
  • M25: found almost exclusively in South Asia
  • M26: found in Indonesia
  • M27: found in the Bougainville, New Britain, New Ireland provinces of Papua New Guinea,
    • M27a
    • M27b
    • M27c
  • M28: found in Oceania, including Vanuatu, the New Britain province of Papua New Guinea, West Polynesia
    • M28a
    • M28b
  • M29: found in New Guinea
    • M29a
    • M29b
  • M30: found in South Asia
    • M30a
      • M30a1
      • M30a2
    • M30b
    • M30c
      • M30c1
        • M30c1a
          • M30c1a1
    • M30d
      • M30d1
      • M30d2
    • M30e
    • M30f
    • M30g
  • M31: found in the Andaman Islands, India, Nepal
    • M31a
      • M31a1
        • M31a1a
        • M31a1b
      • M31a2
    • M31b
      • M31b1
      • M23b2
    • M31c
  • M32: found in the Andaman Islands
    • M32a
    • M32c
  • M33: found throughout Asia, including India, Nepal, Myanmar, China, Iraq
    • M33a
      • M33a1
        • M33a1a
        • M33a1b
      • M33a2
        • M33a2a
      • M33a3
        • M33a3a
    • M33b
      • M33b1
      • M33b2
    • M33c
    • M33d
  • M34: found in South Asia, including India
    • M34a
      • M34a1
        • M34a1a
      • M34a2
    • M34b
  • M35: found in South Asia, including India, Nepal
    • M35a
      • M35a1
        • M35a1a
      • M35a2
    • M35b
      • M35b1
      • M35b2
      • M35b3
    • M35c
  • M36: found in India
    • M36a
    • M36b
    • M36c
    • M36d
      • M36d1
  • M37: found in South Asia
    • M37a
      • M37a1
    • M37d
    • M37e
      • M37e2
  • M38: found in South Asia, Southeast Asia
    • M38a
    • M38b
    • M38c
    • M38d
    • M38e
  • M39: found in India
    • M39a
      • M39a1
      • M39a2
    • M39b
      • M39b1
      • M39b2
    • M39c
  • M40: found in India
    • M40a
      • M40a1
        • M40a1a
        • M40a1b
  • M41: found in India
    • M41a
      • M41a1
    • M41b
    • M41c
  • M42: found in Australian aborigines, India
    • M42a
    • M42b
      • M42b1
        • M42b1a
  • M43: found in South Asia, Southeast Asia (India, Myanmar, Nepal)
    • M43a
      • M43a1
    • M43b
  • M44: found in India
    • M44a
      • M44a1
  • M45: found in Tibet, India
    • M45a
  • M46: found in Southeast Asia, including Cambodia, Thailand, also in the Malagasy of Madagascar
    • M46a
  • M47
  • M48
  • M49: found across South, Southeast and East Asia, including China, India, Myanmar
    • M49a
      • M49a1
      • M49a2
    • M49c
      • M49c1
    • M49d
    • M49e
      • M49e1
  • M50: found in mainland and island Southeast Asia, including Thailand, Myanmar, Philippines
    • M50a
      • M50a1
      • M50a2
  • M51: found in mainland and island Southeast Asia, including Cambodia, Vietnam, Indonesia
    • M51a
      • M51a1
        • M51a1a
        • M51a1b
      • M51a2
    • M51b
      • M51b1
        • M51b1a
        • M51b1b
  • M52: found in South and Southeast Asia, including India, Nepal, Philippines
    • M52a
      • M52a1
        • M52a1a
        • M52a1b
          • M52a1b1
    • M52b
      • M52b1
        • M52b1a
  • M53: found in South Asia
    • M53b
  • M54: found in Tibet, Nepal, Southeast Asia (Thailand)
  • M55: found in Southeast Asia
  • M56: found in India
  • M57: found in India
    • M57a
    • M57b
      • M57b1
  • M58: found in South and Southeast Asia
  • M59: found in Cambodia
  • M60: found in South Asia, including India, Nepal
    • M60a
      • M60a1
      • M60a2
    • M60b
  • M61: found in East and Southeast Asia
    • M61a
  • M62: found in India, Tibet
    • M62a
    • M62b
      • M62b1
        • M62b1a
          • M62b1a1
      • M62b2
  • M63: found in South Asia
  • M64: found in South Asia
  • M65: found in South Asia, Southeast Asia, Tibet
    • M65a
      • M65a1
      • M65a2
    • M65b
  • M66: found in South Asia (India, Nepal)
    • M66a
    • M66b
  • M67: found in India
  • M68: found in Cambodia
    • M68a
      • M68a1
        • M68a1a
      • M68a2
        • M68a2a
  • M69: found in mainland and island Southeast Asia, including Cambodia and Indonesia
    • M69a
  • M70: found in Tibet
  • M71: found in East and Southeast Asia, including China, Cambodia, Myanmar, Philippines
    • M71a
      • M71a1
        • M71a1a
      • M71a2
    • M71b
    • M71c
  • M72: found in East and Southeast Asia, including China, Myanmar and Philippines
    • M72a
  • M73: found in mainland and island Southeast Asia including Vietnam, Thailand, Cambodia, Indonesia and the Philippines
    • M73a
      • M73a1
    • M73b
  • M74: found in East and Southeast Asia, including China, Indonesia, Myanmar
    • M74a
    • M74b
      • M74b1
      • M74b2
  • M75: found in East Asia
  • M76: found in East Asia
    • M76a
  • M77: found in Vietnam
  • M79: found in East Asia
  • M80: found in the Philippines
  • M81: found in India
  • M91: found in Central and Southeast Asia, including Tibet, Cambodia
    • M91a
    • M91b
  • G
  • Q
  • D

 

Links

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_M_%28mtDNA%29