Y-Chromosome Haplogroup E
This haplogroup is thought to have emerged in Africa sometime around 50,000 and 55,000 years ago. The haplogroup has a wide distribution across Africa, Western Asia and Europe.
- E1b1b: Outside Europe, E1b1b is found at high frequencies in Morocco (over 80%), Somalia (80%), Ethiopia (40% to 80%), Tunisia (70%), Algeria (60%), Egypt (40%), Jordan (25%), Palestine (20%), and Lebanon (17.5%). On the European continent it has the highest concentration in Kosovo (over 45%), Albania and Montenegro (both 27%), Bulgaria (23%), Macedonia and Greece (both 21%), Cyprus (20%), Sicily (20%), South Italy (18.5%), Serbia (18%) and Romania (15%).
- E1b1b1 is a lineage which has emerged from the E1b1b haplogroup. The highest frequencies of the haplogroup occur in the Horn of Africa and North Africa where it is likely to have evolved. From here, it has spread out as far south as South Adrica, northwards into West Asia (including Lebanon) and Europe (especially the Mediterranean and the Balkans)
- E3a: Today, most Africans in sub-Saharan Africa share this lineage – this is where the lineage is thought to have evolved some 20-30,000 years ago. In North Africa, this haplogroup is found at frequencies of five to ten percent among Berbers, Tunisians, and Moroccan Arabs. Because it is also predominant in West Africa, many African-Americans also trace their genetic history to this line of descent. Members of this haplogroup can also be found in Great Britain.
- E3b1: The E3b1 lineage is most heavily represented in Mediterranean populations. Approximately 10 percent of the men in Spain belong to this haplogroup, as do 12 percent of the men in northern Italy, and 13 percent of the men in central and southern Italy. Roughly 20 percent of the men in Sicily belong to this group. In the Balkans and Greece, between 20 to 30 percent of the men belong to E3b1, as do nearly 75 percent of the men in North Africa. The haplogroup is rarely found in India or East Asia. Around 10 percent of all European men trace their descent to this line. For example, in Ireland, 3 to 4 percent of the men belong; in England, 4 to 5 percent; Hungary, 7 percent; and Poland, 8 to 9 percent. Nearly 25 percent of Jewish men belong to this haplogroup. The lineage is thought to have arisen in the Middle East around 20,000 years ago.